Database management is a system of managing information that a company needs to run its business operations. It involves storing data, disseminating it to users and applications and editing it when needed as well as monitoring changes in data and preventing data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is a part of the entire informational infrastructure of a business that aids in decision-making as well as corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.
In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) that allowed for the storage and retrieve large amounts of data for a variety of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.
A database consists of tables that organize data according to a particular pattern, for example, one-to-many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and allow cross-references among tables. Each table has a collection of attributes, or fields, that provide information about data entities. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most widely used type of database currently. The concept is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data since it eliminates the necessity of changing several databases.
Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level deals with costs, scalability, and other operational issues, such as the design of the database’s physical storage. The external level focuses on how the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It could comprise a mix of various external views based on different data models. It may also include virtual tables that are computed with generic data to enhance the performance.